Organic Farming: Types, Principles, Methods and Importance

Organic Farming: Types, Principles, Methods and Importance

  • Arhun Nishanthan|  
  • July 13, 2021

OBJECTIVES OF ADOPTING ORGANIC FARMING

Organic farming may be adopted, to…;

  1. Increase genetic diversity.
  2. Promote more usage of natural pesticides.
  3. Make sure the right soil cultivation at the right time.
  4. Keep and build good soil structure and fertility.
  5. Control pests, diseases, and weeds.

TYPES OF ORGANIC FARMING.

  1. Pure organic farming

It involves the use of organic manures and bio-pesticides with complete avoidance of inorganic chemicals and pesticides.

  1. Integrated organic farming

It involves integrated nutrients management and integrated pest management. It is the type of farming where you grow crops from natural resources. Further, having the complete nutritive value and also manage to prevent the crop or plants from the pests.

In organic farming, we use the following techniques;

  • CROP ROTATION: It is the technique to grow various kinds of crops in the same area, according to the different seasons, in a sequential way.
  • GREEN MANURE: It refers to the dying plants that are uprooted and turned into the soil to make them act as a nutrient for the soil to increase its quality
  • BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL: With this method, we use living organisms to control pests with or without the use of chemicals.
  • COMPOST: Highly rich in nutrients, it is a recycled organic matter used as a fertilizer in agricultural farms.

METHODS OF ORGANIC FARMING

  1. Soil management

After the cultivation of crops, the soil loses its nutrients and its quality deplete. Organic agriculture initiates the use of natural ways to increase the fertility of the soil.  Hence, it focuses on the use of bacteria that is present in animal waste. The bacteria help in making the soil’s nutrients more productive and fertile.

  1. Weed management

Weed is an unwanted plant that grows in agricultural fields.  Organic agriculture focuses on lowering weed and not removing it completely. The two most widely used weed management techniques are;

  • Mulching: A process where we use plastic films or plant residue on the surface of the soil to block the growth of weeds.
  • Mowing or Cutting: Where there is a removal of weeds to grow.
  1. Crop diversity

Monoculture is the practice used in the agricultural fields where we harvest and cultivate only one type of crop in a particular place. Recently, polyculture has come in existence, where we harvest and cultivate kinds of crops. To meet the increasing crop demand and produce the required soil microorganisms.

  1. Controlling other organisms

There are both useful and harmful organisms in the agricultural farm which affect the field. So, we need to control the growth of such organisms to protect the soil and the crops. We can do this by the use of herbicides and pesticides that contain fewer chemicals or are natural.

IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIC FARMING

  1. The environment benefits because natural habitat sources are less threatened.
  2. It provides healthier food for people.
  3. The soil is in better condition because of the manure used.

ADVANTAGES OF ORGANIC FARMING

  1. Organic farming helps to prevent environmental degradation and can be used to regenerate degraded areas
  2. Organic manures produce an ideal condition in the soil for high yields and good quality of crops.
  3. They cut the need for purchased inputs.
  4. They improve the soil’s chemical properties such as supply and retention of soil nutrients and promote favorable chemical reactions.
  5. Organically grown plants are more resistant to diseases and insects and hence only a few chemical sprays or other protective treatments are required.
  6. Poison–free.

DISADVANTAGES OF ORGANIC FARMING

  1. Production costs are a high error because farmers need more workers.
  2. Food illness may happen more often.
  3. Organic food is more expensive because farmers do not get much out of their land as conventional farmers do.
  4. Organic farming cannot produce enough food that the world’s population needs to survive.

PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIC FARMING.

  1. Principle of health

Organic agriculture must contribute to the health and well-being of soil, plants, animals, humans and the earth.

  1. The principle of ecological balance

We must model organic farming on living ecological systems. Moreover, the methods of organic farming must fit the ecological balance and cycles.

  1. Principle of fairness

Organic farming provides a good quality of life and helps in reducing soil infertility.

  1. Principle of care

We should practice organic agriculture in a careful and responsible way to help the present and future generations and the environment.

WHY IS CONVENTIONAL FARMING UNSUSTAINABLE?

  1. Loss of soil fertility due to excessive use of chemical fertilizers and lack of crop rotation.
  2. Nitrates’ run-off during rains contaminates water resources.
  3. Use of poisonous biocide sprays to curb pests and weeds.
  4. Soil erosion due to deep plowing and heavy rains.
  5. Loss of biodiversity due to monoculture.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This content is the sole responsibility of its creators. Any opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States Government, European Union or Swiss agency for Development and Cooperation.

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